Present study observed failure of PPE usage by
Present study observed failure of PPE usage by the majority of workers, which may be notable problem and may create a significant health effects due to pesticide exposure. Non-usage of PPE and its ill effects have been reported among farmers in Brazil [24,25] and Nepal . It was reported that use of PPE is poorly tolerated because of discomfort . Inadequate PPE use and poor hygienic practices can lead to increased pesticide exposure and associated intoxication. Present study documented a significantly higher number of illiterate compared to non-exposed group. Present study also observed 68% of workers had the previous history of exposure to this field even up to month 6 of their pregnancy. Although this study did not assess the pregnancy-related health issues and plasma pesticide residues, earlier studies have reported that the pregnant women in agricultural area evidenced the negative association between child mental development and pesticides levels in serum and urine . The enzymes measured in this study showed significant lower activity of erythrocyte AChE (24.17%) and plasma BChE (23.31%) among tea garden workers compared to the non-exposed groups (Fig. 1). The lower activity recorded in the present study is several fold higher than the reduced levels of AChE activity reported in cotton farm workers in Central Republic of Benin . Changes in AChE activity [, , ] and BChE activity [11,32,33] hve been reported previously following pesticide exposure . Although occupational exposure generally characterizes the combined use of several classes of pesticides, the use of different varieties of OPs and pyrethroids in tea plantation in India highlighted in Table 2. Since some OPs act through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase they may act directly on this enzyme, without biotransformation, while other OP act indirectly by inhibiting processes and require metabolic transformation for subsequent absorption. A significant lower activity of AChE and BChE in tea garden workers indicates that exposure to pesticides has the potential to disrupt nervous system function. These results are consistent with those of previous studies [10,34,35] on various occupational exposure and confirm that the measurement of cholinesterase can be useful as a biomarker [30,36] in the monitoring of populations exposed to pesticides. In general, the EDC.HCl mg (ACh) levels must be regulated by its degrading enzymes, AChE and BChE. Once these degrading enzymes become critically deficient in quality and quantity, ACh signalling will be uncontrollably aberrant and persist. The mechanisms involve in development of many diseases such as Alzheimer\'s disease, cancers, atopic dermatitis are due to an imbalance between ACh and ChEs or deficiency of ChEs . Significantly lower activity of ChEs recorded in exposed group in the present study explains that the workers are exposed to pesticide through their occupation. Additionally absence of any association in between levels of cholinesterase activities and other confounding factors clearly indicates potentiality of occupational exposure to pesticides. Since ChEs inhibition test is the biomarkers of ChE-inhibiting pesticides such as OP and carbamates, the adverse effects associated with exposure to multiple pesticides need to be addressed with new biomarker in more detail among population chronically exposed in this type of occupation. The Comet assay has been used to determine the extent of DNA damage in workers with occupational exposure to a variety of pesticides . Our study demonstrates a greater DNA damage in tea garden workers compared to the non-exposed group (Fig. 2). The comet assay parameters such as tail length, % DNA in tail, tail moment and olive tail moment shows significantly higher variation compared to non exposed group. This result is consistent with the previous studies on evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of pesticide mixture among the exposed population . Furthermore, there are also concerns that the risk of genotoxicity from some pesticides might be appreciably greater than that predicted from toxicity tests . Many recent studies have investigated genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and their association with genotoxicity . Evaluation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides revealed an increase in DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes [, , , , , ]. Similarly, a study on tea garden workers occupationally exposed to a complex mixture of pesticides showed cytogenetic damage . A recent review by Dhananjayan and Ravichandran  during 2018 indicated the wide range of health effects among farmer’s occupationally exposed to pesticides in agricultural activities.